There is a global need for deep decarbonization to prevent climate change. And, all industries that produce carbon dioxide must play a part. Global CO2 emissions from fossil fuels were 33 gigatons in 2020, with the power generation sector accounting for 40%. The good news is that there are currently methods such as Gas Turbine available to reduce carbon emissions from the power sector.
We have a chance to cut carbon emissions from existing fossil fuel-based technologies, such as gas turbine power plants. In addition to solar, wind, and other renewable energy sources. Many other industries, such as transportation and home heating. It may rely on increased electrification for carbon reduction plans. Thus, it is putting a higher strain on decarbonizing the power production system to have a real impact.
Switching to zero or net-zero carbon fuels, or using post-combustion carbon capture. They are two main options for decreasing carbon emissions from high-efficiency natural gas-based power generation. The former method takes advantage of gas turbines’ great fuel flexibility. It allows them to run on a variety of fuels, including hydrogen.
Gas Turbine Industry
For more than 30 years, the gas turbine industry has relied on hydrogen-based fuels. It is collecting more than 17 million working hours. Gas turbines have run on fuels containing hydrogen concentrations ranging from 5% to 100% (by volume). This includes the usage of hydrogen/natural gas fuel mixes as well as hydrogen-based industrial fuels.
Syngas (synthesis gas), which may commonly create by gasifying coal or refinery residue. It is one example of an industrial fuel that contains hydrogen. Syngas typically contains 30 to 40% hydrogen (by volume). An integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant may create when gasification is paired with a gas turbine. The Cool Water Project in California, which used a GE 7E gas turbine. It was the first commercial demonstration of an IGCC facility in 1985.
Gas turbine control system
The gas turbine control system was also able to assist the technical experts. It is in reducing the fuel emissions by properly indicating unstable operations. Excessive fuel emissions, fuel control, and vibration monitoring may cover by turbine control systems (eg-GE Fanuc and GE Speedtronic systems). IS200TBAIH1C, and IS200VAICH1C are examples of turbine control system parts.
Gases produced during steel manufacturing, as well as a variety of refinery and process waste gases. They are examples of industrial gases that include hydrogen. For many years, both heavy-duty and aero-derivative gas turbines have used these fuels to generate electricity. A GE 6B gas turbine (44 megawatts) that has been operating for more than 20 years on refinery waste gas with hydrogen concentration. It is ranging from 70% to 95% is a notable example of this category (by volume). In some circumstances, the hydrogen-containing fuel is insufficient to power the gas turbine. In these cases, the fuel can combine with natural gas.
This type of improvement was successfully executed on a set of 7F gas turbines in the United States about a decade ago. In reality, as demand for hydrogen as a power production fuel develops in the coming years. It is delivering the requisite hydrogen at the scale required will be just as difficult. If not more difficult—than operating a gas turbine using the fuel itself.
Application to Existing and New Gas Turbines
Based on these findings, it is obvious that gas turbines can run on hydrogen and hydrogen blends. And, that a future shift to hydrogen as a zero-carbon gas turbine fuel may be feasible. The industry’s experience with industrial fuels provides insight into the alterations or improvements. It may required to support the use of hydrogen in current and new gas turbines.
An existing power plant, for example, may convert to run on hydrogen and natural gas mixtures. Hydrogen may provide separately from natural gas, a new (fuel-blending) system must install to inject hydrogen into the existing fuel system. New gas turbine power plants can become “hydrogen enabled,”. It is meaning they’ll set up to run on natural gas when they first go online, with measures in place to make hydrogen fuel upgrades easier in the future.
A hydrogen-enabled power plant may necessitate configuration changes. They are easier to perform during construction than after the unit has been fully operational. Examples may include different physical layouts (to allow for the addition of hydrogen fuel systems) and upgrades to safety systems.
The utilization of hydrogen as a power production fuel is a critical step toward ensuring reliable, dispatchable power while reducing carbon emissions. However, this is only the first stage in the process. We must build the infrastructure to produce blue or green hydrogen (hydrogen produced from natural gas with carbon capture or from renewable energy and electrolysis) at scale and at a cost that makes electricity affordable to everyone. While obstacles remain, progress in this essential technology competence will help to decarbonize electricity generation and battle climate change.